Karine Clément

– Abstract –

Acting on Gut Microbiota in Metabolic Diseases: Why, for Who, What and When

The high prevalence of metabolic disorders is a global health problem resulting in considerable health care costs. Lifestyle changes are seen as cornerstones in the management of these tightly-linked but heterogeneous disorders that progress over an individual’s lifetime. Some patients with metabolic disorders will progress rapidly toward complications whereas others will progress more slowly.

The development and progression of metabolic diseases is linked to changes in a myriad of environmental factors interacting with individuals’ genetic background and epigenetic factors. The gut microbiota is now seen a key player at the interface between these environmental changes and host biology. These diseases are associated with reduced gut microbiota diversity and modified composition, with an aggravation of dysbiosis with the progression of the disease, particularly in the obesity context. Gut microbiota profile is also associated with specific dietary patterns and is modified with dietary and therapeutic interventions (either medical or surgical) known to improve cardiometabolic risks. These interventions can improve gut microbiota diversity and richness together with amelioration of metabolic and variables linked to low-grade inflammation.

Whether live microorganisms (i.e. probiotics) eventually combined to prebiotics can impact significantly gut microbiota composition and may induce a beneficial and significant effect in human metabolism and inflammation is still an open question. Moreover, which population or patient might benefit the most of these interventions impacting on the gut microbiome has to be deciphered. This presentation will examine whether modification of the microbiome can help in improving metabolic health and in which individuals.